Glossary of Lighting Terms
Nikola Tesla (Serbian: Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor, mechanical and electrical engineer. He was an important contributor to the birth of commercial electricity, and is best known for his many revolutionary developments in the field of electromagnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla’s patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current (AC) electric power systems, including the polyphase system of electrical distribution and the AC motor. This work helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.
AC (Alternating Current)
Current which flows in one direction and then the other, alternately.
A measure of electrical current. In incandescent lamps, the current is related to voltage and power as follows: Watts (power) = Volts x Amps (current).
An auxiliary piece of equipment required to start and to properly control the flow of current to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Typically, magnetic ballasts (also called electromagnetic ballasts) contain copper windings on an iron core while electronic ballasts are smaller and more efficient and contain electronic components.
Ballast Efficacy Factor (BEF)
Defined as ballast factor divided by input watts. The value is used to evaluate various lighting systems based on light output and power input. The BEF can only be used to compare systems operating the same type and quantity of lamps.
Ballast Factor (BF)
This is the percentage of a lamp’s rated lumen output that can be expected when operated on a specific, commercially available ballast. Note that the “rated output” is sometimes measured on a reference ballast unlike ones that actually operate the lamp in the field. For example, a ballast with a ballast factor of 0.93 will result in the lamp’s emitting 93% of its rated lumen output. A ballast with a lower BF results in less light output and also generally consumes less power.
A loose way of referring to a lamp. “Bulb” refers to the outer glass bulb containing the light source.
Bulb shape followed by its size (the maximum diameter of the bulb expressed in eighths of an inch). For Compact Fluorescent products, “S”, “D”, “T”, and “Q” are used to represent Single, Double, Triple and Quad Biax® sizes. The code also includes a reference such as T4 to represent the size of the tube. Rectangular headlamps are designated as “Rect” and the number of millimeters horizontally.
Brightness can refer to any of several technical terms used in lighting and is, therefore, ambiguous (See LUMINANCE).
Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
An organization that writes standards and tests lighting equipment for performance as well as electrical and fire safety. Canadian provincial laws generally require that all products sold for consumer use in Canada must have CSA or equivalent approval.
The measure of luminous intensity of a source in a given direction. The term has been retained from the early days of lighting when a standard candle of a fixed size and composition was defined as producing one candela in every direction. A plot of intensity versus direction is called a candela distribution curve and is often provided for reflectorized lamps and for luminaires with a lamp operating in them.
An obsolete term for luminous intensity; current practice is to refer to this simply as candelas.
Candlepower (Mean Spherical)
Initial mean spherical candlepower at the design voltage. Mean spherical candlepower is the generally accepted method of rating the total light output of miniature lamps. To convert this rating to lumens, multiply it by 12.57 (4 pi).
Coefficient of Utilization (CU)
In general lighting calculations, the fraction of initial lamp lumens that reach the work plane. CU is a function of luminaire efficiency, room surface reflectances and room shape.
Color Rendering Index (CRI)
An international system used to rate a lamp’s ability to render object colors. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale) the richer colors generally appear. CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are close in color temperature. CRI differences among lamps are not usually significant (visible to the eye) unless the difference is more than 3-5 points.
Color Temperature (Correlated Color Temperature – CCT)
A number indicating the degree of “yellowness” or “blueness” of a white light source. Measured in kelvins, CCT represents the temperature an incandescent object (like a filament) must reach to mimic the color of the lamp. Yellowish-white (“warm”) sources, like incandescent lamps, have lower color temperatures in the 2700K-3000K range; white and bluish-white (“cool”) sources, such as cool white (4100K) and natural daylight (6000K), have higher color temperatures. The higher the color temperature the whiter, or bluer, the light will be.
A term loosely used to denote a color temperature of around 4100 K. The Cool White (CW) designation is used specifically for T12 and other fluorescent lamps using halophosphors and having a CRI of 62.
Cost of Light
Usually refers to the cost of operating and maintaining a lighting system on an ongoing basis. The 88-8-4 rule states that (typically) 88% is the cost of electricity, 8% is labor and only 4% is the cost of lamps.
A lamp resembling the color of daylight, typically with a color temperature of 5500 K to 6500K
A measurement of how effective the light source is in converting electrical energy to lumens of visible light. Expressed in lumens-per-watt (LPW) this measure gives more weight to the yellow region of the spectrum and less weight to the blue and red region where the eye is not as sensitive.
The efficiency of a light source is simply the fraction of electrical energy converted to light, i.e. watts of visible light produced for each watt of electrical power with no concern about the wavelength where the energy is being radiated. For example, a 100 watt incandescent lamp converts 7% of the electrical energy into light; discharge lamps convert 25% to 40% into light.
The efficiency of a luminaire or fixture is the percentage of the lamp lumens that actually comes out of the fixture (See LUMINOUS EFFICACY)
A short name for a fluorescent high frequency electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts use solid state electronic components and typically operate fluorescent lamps at frequencies in the range of 25-35 kHz. The benefits are: increased lamp efficacy, reduced ballast losses and lighter, smaller ballasts compared to electromagnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts may also be used with HID (high intensity discharge) lamps.
Energy Policy Act (EPACT)
Comprehensive energy legislation passed by the U. S. Congress in 1992. The lighting portion includes lamp labeling and minimum energy efficacy (lumens/watt) requirements for many commonly used incandescent and fluorescent lamp types. Federal Canadian legislation sets similar minimum energy efficacy requirements for incandescent reflector lamps and common linear fluorescent lamps.
A curve depicting the sensitivity of the human eye as a function of wavelength (or color). The peak of human eye sensitivity is in the yellow-green region of the spectrum. The normal curve refers to photopic vision or the response of the cones. (See Photopic, Scotopic, Fovea, Foveal vision)
Metal tungsten wire heated by the passage of electrical current, used to emit light in incandescent lamps. In fluorescent lamps the filament is coated with emission mix and emits electrons when heated.
A physical phenomenon whereby an atom of a material absorbs a photon of light and immediately emits a photon of longer wavelength. If there is a significant delay the phenoenon is called phosphorescence rather than fluorescence. It is interesting that “phosphors” used in lamps exhibit “fluorescence,” not “phosphorescence.” (See PHOSPHOR)
A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. It stands for the light level on a surface one foot from a standard candle. One footcandle is equal to one lumen per square foot. (See LUX)
An obsolete term referring to a luminance of 1/2 candelas per square foot.
Rate of alternation in an AC current. Expressed in cycles per second or Hertz (Hz).
Fovea, Foveal Vision
A small region of the retina corresponding to what an observer is looking straight at. This region is populated almost entirely with cones, while the peripheral region has increasing numbers of rods. Cones have a sensitivity peaking in the yellow and corresponding to the eye response curve (See PHOTOPIC, SCOTOPIC, EYE SENSITIVITY)
Full Spectrum Lighting
A marketing term, typically associated with light sources that are similar to some forms of natural daylight (5000K and above, 90+ CRI), but sometimes more broadly used for lamps that have a smooth and continuous color spectrum.
Visual discomfort caused by excessive brightness is called discomfort glare. If task performance is affected it is called disability glare. Glare can be direct glare or indirect (reflected) glare (See VISUAL COMFORT PROBABILITY)
Unit used to measure frequency of alteration of current or voltage
The “density” of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface; i.e. the light level on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux Induction Lighting Gases can be excited directly by radio-frequency or microwaves from a coil that creates induced electromagnetic fields. This is called induction lighting and it differs from a conventional discharge, which uses electrodes to carry current into the arc. Induction lamps have no electrodes inside the chamber and generally, therefore, have longer life than standard lamps.
Power supply voltage required for proper operation of fluorescent or HID ballast.
The total power input to the ballast which includes lamp watts and ballast losses. The total power input to the fixture is the input watts to the ballast or ballasts and is the value to be used when calculating cost of energy and air conditioning loads.
Lamp starting method in which lamps are started by high voltage input with no preheating of lamp filaments. Some rapid start lamps are designed so that they may be started instantly.
Inverse Square Law
Formula stating that if you double the distance from the light source, the light level goes down by a factor of 4, if you triple the distance, it goes down by a factor of 9, and so on.
A unit of temperature starting from absolute zero, parallel to the Celsius (or Centigrade) scale. 0C is 273K.
The measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.
Kilowatt Hour (kWh)
The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or one kilowatt-hour. If the utility charges $.10/kWh, then the electricity cost for the 10 hours of operation would be 10 cents (1 x $.10)
The term used to refer to the complete light source package, including the inner parts as well a the outer bulb or tube. “Lamp”, of course, is also commonly used to refer to a type of small light fixture such as a table lamp.
Lamp Current Crest Factor
Ratio of peak lamp current to RMS or average lamp operating current.
Filament lamps: Incandescent, Halogen, Halogen-IR.
Discharge Lamps: Fluorescent, HID (High Intensity Discharge)
HID Lamps: Mercury, HPS (High Pressure Sodium), MH (Metal Halide) and CMH (Ceramic Metal Halide)
Input power used to operate lamps.
Radiant energy that can be sensed or seen by the human eye. Visible light is measured in lumens.
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
A solid that directly converts electrical impulses into light. Some LED’s today incorporate fluorescent materials to change the color characteristics of the emitted light.
Light Loss Factor
The product of all factors that contribute to lowering the illumination level including reflector degradation, dirt, lamp depreciation over time, voltage fluctuations, etc.
Light that is directed to areas where it is not needed, and thereby interferes with some visual act. Light pollution directed or reflected into the sky creates a “dome” of wasted light and makes it difficult to see stars above cities.
Light Trespass (Spill Light)
Light that is not aimed properly or shielded effectively can spill out at into areas that don’t want it: it can be directed towards drivers, pedestrians or neighbors. It is distracting and annoying and can sometimes be disabling.
A measure of the luminous flux or quantity of light emitted by a source. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides about 840 lumens.
A ratio expressing the luminous efficacy of a light source. Typical lamp efficacies:
- Thomas Edison’s first lamp – 1.4 lpW
- Incandescent lamps – 10-40
- Halogen incandescent lamps – 20-45
- Fluorescent lamps – 35-105
- Mercury lamps – 50-60
- Metal halide lamps – 60-120
- High-pressure sodium lamps – 60-140
Note: The values above for discharge lamps do not include the effect of the ballasts, which must be used with those lamps. Taking ballast losses into account reduces “system” or lamp-ballast efficacies typically by 10-20% depending upon the type of ballast used.
The ratio of total lumens emitted by a luminaire to those emitted by the lamp or lamps used in that luminaire.
A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp (or lamps), ballast (or ballasts) as required together with the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps and connect them to the power supply. A luminaire is often referred to as a fixture.
A measure of “surface brightness” when an observer is looking in the direction of the surface. It is measured in candelas per square meter (or per square foot) and was formerly referred to as “photometric brightness.”
A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. One lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. Ten lux approximately equals one footcandle. (See FOOTCANDLE)
The average light output of a lamp over its rated life. Based on the shape of the lumen depreciation curve, for fluorescent and metal halide lamps, mean lumens are measured at 40% of rated lamp life. For mercury, high-pressure sodium and incandescent lamps, mean lumen ratings refer to lumens at 50% of rated lamp life (See LUMEN MAINTENANCE)
Distance from the bottom of the fixture to either the floor or work plane, depending on usage.
National Electric Code (NEC)
A nationally accepted electrical installation code to reduce the risk of fire, developed by the National Fire Protection Association.
National Stock Number
The standardized part number used by the US Government for procurement.
A unit of wavelength equal to one billionth of a meter.
Normal Power Factor
Ballasts with power factor less than .90 and do not incorporate any means of Power Factor Correction.
Open Circuit Voltage (OCV)
Open Circuit Voltage measured across the socket the lamp screws into, with the ballast powered on. It is dangerous to stick a voltmeter into such a socket without precise knowledge of the ballast because exceedingly high voltages could be present.
For electrical discharge lamps, this is the voltage measured across the discharge when the lamp is operating. It is governed by the contents of the chamber and is somewhat independent of the ballast and other external factors.
An inorganic chemical compound processed into a powder and deposited on the inner glass surface of fluorescent tubes and some mercury and metal-halide lamp bulbs. Phosphors are designed to absorb short wavelength ultraviolet radiation and to transform and emit it as visible light (See FLOURESCENCE)
The measurement of light and related quantities.
Measurement of the relationship between the AC source voltage and current. High power factor ballasts require less AC operating current at the same wattage than an equivalent low power factor ballast. Formula: Power Factor equals Input Watts divided by the product of Line Volts times Line Amps (Volt Amps or VA).
Power Factor Corrected
Ballasts that incorporate a means of Power Factor Correction but whose power factor is 90% or greater.
An HID ballast with a high voltage ignitor to start the lamp.
Rated Lamp Life
For most lamp types, rated lamp life is the length of time of a statistically large sample between first use and the point when 50% of the lamps have died. It is possible to define “useful life” of a lamp based on practical considerations involving lumen depreciation and color shift.
The ratio of light reflected from a surface to that incident upon it.
Vision where the rods of the retina are exclusively responsible for seeing, typically like the light levels in the countryside on a moonless, starlit night (See also PHOTOPIC, FOVEA, FOVEAL VISION MESOPIC).
Scotopic/Photopic (S/P) Ratio
This measurement accounts for the fact that of the two light sensors in the retina, rods are more sensitive to blue light (scotopic vision) and cones to yellow light (photopic vision). The scotopic/photopic (S/P) ratio is an attempt to capture the relative strengths of these two responses. S/P is calculated as the ration of scotopic lumens to photopic lumens for the light source on an ANSI reference ballast. Cooler sources (higher color temperatures lamps) tend to have higher values of the S/P ratio compared to warm sources.
Spacing to Mounting Height Ratio
Ratio of fixture spacing (distance apart) to mounting height above the work plane; sometimes called spacing criterion. It is OK to have fixture spaced closer than the spacing criterion suggested by the manufacturer but not farther, or you will get dark spots in-between fixtures.
T-12, T-8, T-5
A designation for the diameter of a tubular bulb in eighths of an inch; T-12 is 12 eighths of an inch, or 11/2 inches; T-8 is 1 inch, and so on.
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
A measure of the distortion of the input current on alternating current (AC) power systems caused by higher order harmonics of the fundamental frequency (60Hz in North America). THD is expressed in percent and may refer to individual electrical loads (such as ballast) or a total electrical circuit or system in a building. ANSI C82.77 recommends THD not exceed 32% for individual commercial electronic ballasts, although some electrical utilities may require lower THDs on some systems. Excessive THDs on electrical systems can cause efficiency losses as well as overheating and deterioration of system components
Visual Comfort Probability (VCP)
For a given lighting scheme, VCP is a ratio expressed as a percent of people who, when viewing from a specific location and in a specified direction, find the system acceptable in terms of glare (See GLARE)